Located in east-central Asia, Mongolia has an area of 1,565,000 km² (604,250 mi²), extending 2,368 km (1,471 mi) east to west, and 1,260 km (783 mi) north to south. Comparatively, the area occupied by Mongolia is slightly smaller than the state of Alaska, or about twice the size of Turkey. The largest landlocked country in the world, Mongolia is bordered on the north by Russia and on the east, south and west by China, with a total boundary length of 8,162 km (5,072 mi).
Mongolia is essentially a vast plateau with an average elevation of 914 to 1,524 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft). Mongolia comprises a mountainous section in the extreme west, where the peak of Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) of the Mongolian Altay Mountains rises to a height of 4,374 m (14,350 ft). Other mountain ranges are the Hentiyn, along the Soviet border, and the Hangayn, in west-central Mongolia. The southern part of the country is occupied by the Gobi, a rocky desert with a thin veneer of shifting sand. Explorations have uncovered large reservoirs of water 2-3 m (7-10 ft) beneath the desert surface.
Mongolia has an arid continental climate with a wide seasonal range of temperature and low precipitation. In winter, it is the site of the great Siberian high, which governs the climate of a large part of Asia and gives Mongolia average winter temperatures of -21° to 30°C (-5° to -22°F) and dry, virtually snowless winters. In summer, remnants of the southeasterly monsoon bring most of the year's precipitation. Annual precipitation ranges from 25 to 38 cm (10 to 15 in) in mountain areas to less than 10 cm (4 in) in the Gobi.
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates :
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references :
total: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
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